Diabetes Mellitus


  1. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:S81-90. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S81.full.pdf+html. Erratum published March 2014;37:887; at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/3/887.1.full.pdf+html. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  2. American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:S14-80. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S14.full.pdf+html. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  3. Mensing C, Boucher J, Cypress M, et al. National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:S72-9. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/full/28/suppl_1/s72. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  4. American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations. Diabetes and driving. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:S97-103. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S97.full.pdf+html. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  5. Smaldone A. Glycemic control and hemoglobinopathy: when A1C may not be reliable. Diabetes Spectrum. 2008;21(1):46-9. Available at: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/21/1/46.full.pdf+html. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  6. Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B, et al. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and the
    Endocrine Society. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:1384-95.
  7. International Hypoglycaemia Study Group. Minimizing hypoglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(8):1583-91.
  8. Beaser RS. Joslin’s Diabetes Deskbook: A Guide for Primary Care Providers. 3rd ed. 2014, Boston, Mass: Joslin Diabetes Center; 2014.
  9. Umpierrez GE, ed. Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and Related Disorders. 6th ed. Alexandria, Virg: American Diabetes Association; 2014.
  10. Viswanath K, McGavin DD. Diabetic retinopathy: clinical findings and management. Comm Eye Health. 2003;16(46):21-4. Available at: cehjournal.org/0953-6833/16/jceh_16_46_021.html. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  11. Michigan Diabetes Research & Training Center, University of Michigan Health System. How to Use the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Available at: med.umich.edu/mdrtc/profs/documents/svi/MNSI_howto.pdf. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  12. Consensus Statement of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. J Autonomic Nerv Syst. 1996;58(1-2):123-4.
  13. American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association. 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(25):e50-e103.
  14. American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25):2935-59.
  15. Gibbons RJ, Balady GJ, Bricker JT, et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1997 Exercise Testing Guidelines).
    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40(8):1531-40. Available at: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109702021642. Accessed
    May 3, 2017.
  16. Fletcher G, Ades P, Kligfield P, et al. Exercise Standards for Testing and Training: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;128:894-8.
  17. de Ferranti SD, de Boer IH, Fonseca V, et al. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association. Circulation. 2014;130(13):1110-30.
  18. American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2016. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:S67.
  19. Tuttle KR, Kakris GL, Bilous RW, et al. Diabetic kidney disease: a report from an ADA consensus conference. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2864-83. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/10/2864.full. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  20. Thorn L, Gordin D, Harjutsalo V, et al. The presence and consequence of nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015; 38:2128-33.
  21. Molitch ME, DeFronzo RA, Franz MJ, et al; American Diabetes Asso-ciation. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 Suppl 1:S79-83. Available at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/full/27/suppl_1/s79. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  22. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Intl Suppl. 2013;3(1):91. Available at: kdigo.org/clinical_practice_guidelines/pdf/CKD/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  23. Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, de Galan BE, et.al. ACVANCE Collaborative Group. Albuminuria and kidney function independently predict cardio-vascular and renal outcomes in diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(8): 1813-21. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2723977/. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  24. Tancredi M, Rosengren A, Svensson A-M, et al. Excess mortality among persons with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373:1720-32.
  25. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, et al; American Diabetes Association. Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 Suppl 1:S94-102. Available at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/full/27/suppl_1/s94. Accessed
    May 2, 2017.
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2014. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/2014-report-estimates-of-diabetes-and-its-burden-in-the-united-states.pdf. Accessed May 22, 2018.
  27. Inzucchi S, Bergenstal R, Buse J, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach —
    position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1371.
  28. Schnell O, Barnard K, Bergenstal R, et al. Clinical utility of SMBG: recommendations on the use and reporting of SMBG in clinical research. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1627-33.
  29. Miller K, Beck R, Bergenstal R, et al. Evidence of a strong association between frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c Levels in T1D Exchange Clinic Registry Participants. Diabetes Care. 2015;36:2009-14.
  30. D’Orazio P, Burnett RW, Fogh-Andersen N, et al. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Working Group on Selective Electrodes and Point of Care Testing. Approved IFCC recommendation on reporting results for blood glucose (abbreviated). Clin Chem. 2005;51:1573-6.
  31. Frier BM. How hypoglycemia can affect the life of a person with diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;24:87-92.
  32. Choudhary P, Rickels M, Senior P, et al. Evidence-informed clinical practice recommendations for treatment of type 1 diabetes complicated by problematic hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1016-29.
  33. Cryer PE. Mechanisms of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:362-72.
  34. Jennum P, Stender-Petersen K, Rabol R, et al. The impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on sleep in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015; 38:2151-7.
  35. Dahlquist G, Kallen B. Mortality in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:2384-87.
  36. Sherr J, Collazo M, Cengiz E. Safety of nighttime 2-hour suspension of basal insulin in pump-treated type 1 diabetes even in absence of low glucose. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:774.
  37. Pathak R, Schroeder E, Seaquist E, et al. Severe hypoglycemia requiring medical intervention in a large cohort of adults with diabetes receiving care in U.S. integrated health care delivery systems: 2005-2011. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:363-70.
  38. Holman RR, Thorne Kl, Farmer AJ, et al. 4-T Study Group. Addition of biphasic, prandial, or basal insulin to oral therapy in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1716-30.
  39. UK Hypoglycaemia Study Group. Risk of hypoglycaemia in types 1 and 2 diabetes: effects of treatment modalities and their duration. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1140-7.
  40. Holstein A, Plaschke A, Egberts E-H. Lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glimepiride versus glibenclamide. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001;17:467-73.
  41. Pedersen-Bjergaard U, Faerch L, Allingbjerg M-L, et al. The influence of new European Union driver’s license legislation on reporting of severe hypoglycemia by patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:30.
  42. Geggel L. Precautions urged for drivers with diabetes. New York Times. January 29, 2013. Available at: http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/28/precautions-urged-for-drivers-with-diabetes. Accessed May 4, 2017.
  43. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes and employment. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl 1):S115-7. Available at: http://main.diabetes.org/dorg/PDFs/Advocacy/Discrimination/ps-diabetes-and-employment.pdf. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  44. Weinstock R, DuBose S, Bergenstal R, et al. Risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:603-10.
  45. O’Keeffe D, Maraka S, Rizza R. HbA1c in the evaluation of diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2016;315:605-6.
  46. Herman WH. Are there clinical implications of racial differences in HbA1c? Yes, to not consider can do great harm! Diabetes Care. 2016;39(8):1458-61.
  47. Selvin E. Are there clinical implications of racial differences in HbA1c? A difference, to be a difference, must make a difference. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:1462-7.
  48. Welsh KJ, Kirkman MS, Sacks DB. Role of glycated proteins in the diagnosis and management of diabetes: research gaps and future directions. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:1299-306.
  49. Bergenstal RM, Ahman AJ, Bailey T, et al. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP). Diabetes Technol Ther. 2013;15:198-211.
  50. Cefalu W. Glycemic variability and diabetes complications: does it matter? Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1610.
  51. Qu Y, Jacober SJ, Zhang Q, Wolka LL, DeVries JH. Rate of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes can be predicted from glycemic variability data. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14(11):1008-12.
  52. Hirsch I, Berfenstal R. Glycemic variability and diabetes complications: does it matter? Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1610-21.
  53. California POST Medical Screening Manual, III-5-6. Available at: https://post.ca.gov/medical-screening-manual.aspx. Accessed
    May 2, 2017.
  54. Gorst C, Kwok C, Aslam S, et al. Long-term glycemic variability and risk of adverse outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:2354-69.
  55. Kovatchev BP, Cox DJ, Summers KH, Gonder-Frederick LA, Clarke WL. Postprandial glucose dynamics and associated symptoms in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Appl Res. 2003;3:449-58.
  56. Sommerfield AJ, Deary IJ, Frier BM. Acute hyperglycemia alters mood state and impairs cognitive performance in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2335-40 34.
  57. Cox DJ, McCall A, Kovatchev BP, Sarwat S, Ilag LL, Tan MH. Effects of blood glucose rate of changes on perceived mood and cognitive symp-toms in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2001-2.
  58. Gonder-Frederick LA, Zrebiec JF, Bauchowitz AU, et al. Cognitive function is disrupted by both hypo- and hyperglycemia in school-aged children with type 1 diabetes: a field study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1001-6.
  59. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2015. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Suppl 1):S1-590. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/suppl/2014/12/23/38.Supplement_1.DC1/January_Supplement_Combined_Final.6-99.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2017.
  60. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. Factors predictive of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:586-90.
  61. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Hypoglycemia in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes. 1997;46:271-86.
  62. Davis AK, DuBose SN, Haller MJ, et al. Prevalence of detectable C-peptide according to age at diagnosis and duration of type 1 Diabetes Care. 2015;38(3):476-81. Available at: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/3/476. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  63. Jones AG, Hattersley AT. The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. Diabetic Med. 2013;30(7):803-17.
  64. Merwin R, Dmitrieva N, Honeycutt L, et al. Momentary predictors of insulin restriction among adults with type 1 diabetes and eating disorder symptomatology. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:2025-32.
  65. Kovarik JJ, Eller AW, Willard LA, Ding J, Johnston JM, Waxman EL. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy among inpatients with diabetes: the diabetic retinopathy inpatient study (DRIPS). BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016;4:e000164.
  66. Huang W, Mirza R, Molitch M. What does this retina examination show? JAMA. 2015;314:2556.
  67. Brownlee M, Aiello L, Friedman E, et al. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 10th ed. Editors Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders (Elsevier Science); 2003, Section 8(31):1533-4. Available at: http://www.justmed.eu/files/st/endocrinologie/Williams%20-%20Endocrinology%2010ed.pdf. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  68. Vinik A, Zeilger D. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation. 2007:115:387-97.
  69. Brown S, Handsaker C, Bowling F, et al. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy compromises balance during daily activities. Diabetes Care. 2015; 38:
  70. American Diabetes Association. 9. Microvascular complications and foot care. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(Suppl 1):S72-80. Available at:
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/39/Supplement_1/S72. Accessed May 2, 2017.
  71. Goldfine A, Phua E-J, Abrahamson M. Glycemic management in patients with coronary artery disease and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2014;129:2567.
  72. American Diabetes Association. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(Suppl 1):s79-83.
  73. Gall M-A, Borch-Johnsen K, Hougaard P, et al. Albuminuria and poor glycemic control predict mortality in NIDDM. Diabetes. 1995; 44:1303-9.