Endocrine Disorders (Adrenal Insufficiency)


  • NIH. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease. Accessed May 24, 2021.
  • National Institutes of Health. Patient Information Publications: Managing Adrenal Insufficiency. Webpage: http://www.kumc.edu/Documents/endocrine/mngadrins.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2021.
  • Pazderska A, Pearce SH. Adrenal insufficiency: recognition and management. Clin Med (Lond). 2017;17(3):258-262.
  • Charmandari E, Nicolaides NC, Chrousos GP. Adrenal insufficiency. Lancet. 2014;383(9935):2152-2167.
  • Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(3):216-26.
  • Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ, Falhammar H. Adrenal crisis. N Engl J Med. 2019;381:852-861.
  • Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(2):364-389. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/101/2/364/2810222. Accessed May 24, 2021.
  • Endocrine Society: Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Guideline Resources. https://www.endocrine.org/guidelines-and-clinical-practice/clinical-practice-guidelines/primary-adrenal-insufficiency
  • Hormone Health Network. Adrenal Insufficiency. Website: Endocrine Society, 24 May 2021. Available at: https://www.hormone.org/diseases-and-conditions/adrenal-insufficiency. Accessed May 24, 2021.
  • Betterle C, Presotto F, Furmaniak J. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of Addison’s disease in adults. J Endocrinol Invest. 2019;42(12):1407-1433.
  • Husebye ES, Allolio B, Badenoop K, Bensing S et al. Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. J Intern Med. 2014;275(2):104-115.
  • Munawar M, Iftikhar PM, Hasan CA, Sohail CS, Rizvi SW. Neuropsychiatric manifestation of Addison’s disease: a rare case report. Cureus. 2019;11(4):e4356.
  • Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ, Falhammar H. Adrenal crises: perspectives and research directions. Endocrine. 2017;55: 336-345.
  • Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:597-602.
  • Dineen R, Thompson CJ, Sherlock M. Adrenal crisis: prevention and management in adult patients. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2019;10:2042018819848218. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566489/. Accessed January 10, 2021.
  • Puar TH, Stikkelbroeck NM, Smans LC, Zelissen PM, Hermus AR. Adrenal crisis: still a deadly event in the 21st Century. Am J Med. 2016;129(3):339.e1-9.