Neurology: Seizures

sec_arr References


  1. Fisher RS, C, Arzimanoglou A, et al. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2014;55(4):475-482. Available at Accessed July 14, 2014.
  2. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, Rocca WA. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med. 1998;338: 20-1. Available at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  3. Phabphal K, Kanjanasatien J. Montreal Cognitive Assessment in cryptogenic epilepsy patients with normal Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Epileptic Disord. 2011;13(4):375-81.
  4. Pérez-Mojica D. A-42: Utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Spanish version in detecting cognitive impairment in a Puerto Rican temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) sample. Abstracts from the 34th Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, November 12-15, 2014. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29(6):518-9.
  5. Aarts HP, Binnie CD, Smit AM, Wilkins AJ. Selective cognitive impairment during focal and generalized epileptiform EEG activity. Brain. 1984;107(Pt 1):293-308.
  6. Dikmen SS, Temkin NR, Miller B, Winn HR. Neurobehavioral effects of phenytoin prophylaxis of posttraumatic seizures. JAMA. 1991;265(10):1271-7.
  7. Cockerell OC, Johnson AL, Sander JW, Hart YM, Shorvon SD. Remission of epilepsy: results from the National General Practice Study of Epilepsy. Lancet. 1995;346(8968):140-4.
  8. Specchio LM, Beghi E. Should antiepileptic drugs be withdrawn in seizure-free patients? CNS Drugs. 2004;18(4):201-12.
  9. Wiebe S, Blume WT, Girvin JP, Eliasziw M; Effectiveness and Efficiency of Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Study Group. A randomized, controlled trial of surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(5):311-8. Available at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  10.  Kim YD, Heo K, Park SC, et al. Antiepileptic drug withdrawal after successful surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46(2):251-7.
  11.  Fisher RS, Boas WVE, Blume W, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for  Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005;46(4):470-2. Available at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  12. Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, et al. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and  Terminology, 2005-2009. Epilepsia. 2010;51(4):676-85. Available at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  13.  Berg AT, Shinnar S. The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review. Neurology. 1991;41(7):965-72.
  14.  Hopkins A, Garman A, Clarke C. The first seizure in adult life. Value of clinical features, electroencephalography, and computerized tomographic scanning in prediction of seizure   recurrence. Lancet. 1988;1(8588):721-6.
  15.  Annegers JF, Shirts SB, Hauser WA, Kurland LT. Risk of recurrence after an initial unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia. 1986;27(1):43-50.
  16.  Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Seizure recurrence after a 1st unprovoked seizure: an extended follow-up. Neurology. 1990;40(8):1163-70.
  17.  Cleland PG, Mosquera I, Steward WP, Foster JB. Prognosis of isolated seizures in adult life. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981;283(6303):1364. Available at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  18.  Elwes RDC, Chesterman P, Reynolds EH. Prognosis after a first untreated tonic-clonic seizure. Lancet. 1985; 326(8458):752-3.
  19.  First Seizure and Trial Group. Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing the risk of relapse after a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. Neurology.  1993;43(3 Pt 1):478-83.
  20.  Chadwick D, Taylor J, Johnson T. Outcomes after seizure recurrence in people with well-controlled epilepsy and the factors that influence it. The MRC Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Group. Epilepsia. 1996;37(11):1043-50.
  21.  Schmidt D, Löscher W. Uncontrolled epilepsy following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients: a review of current clinical experience. Acta Neurol Scand.  2005;111(5):291-300.
  22.  Prognostic index for recurrence of seizures after mission of epilepsy. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group. BMJ. 1993;306(6889):1374-8. Available  at Accessed December 2, 2014.
  23.  Sirven JI, Sperling M, Wingerchuk DM. Early versus late antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with epilepsy in remission. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD001902.
  24.  Schiller Y. Seizure relapse and development of drug resistance following long-term seizure remission. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(10):1233-9.
  25.  Hoppe C, Elger CE, Helmstaedter C. Long-term memory impairment in patients with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48 Suppl 9:26-9.
  26.  Patrikelis P, Angelakis E, Gatzonis S. Neurocognitive and behavioral functioning in frontal lobe epilepsy: a review. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14(1):19-26.

Additional Resources


Federal Aviation Administration. Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners. Published December 6, 2010. Available at Accessed February 3, 2015.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Medical Examiner Handbook. Published March 18, 2014. Available at (Update in process.)

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Expert Panel Recommendations: Seizure Disorders and Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Safety. Published October 15, 2007. Available at Accessed February 3, 2015.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Medical Review Board Meeting Summary – January 28, 2008. Available at Accessed February 3, 2015.

State of California. Neurology. Available at Accessed February 3, 2015.

National Fire Protection Association. Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments. Published December 12, 2012. Available at Accessed February 3, 2015.

Journal Articles/Other Publications

Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Elveback LR. Remission of seizures and relapse in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1979;20(6):729-37.

Annegers JF, Shirts SB, Hauser WA, Kurland LT. Risk of recurrence after an initial unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia. 1986;27(1):43-50.

Berg AT, Shinnar S. Relapse following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs: a meta-analysis. Neurology. 1994;44(4):601-8.

Berg AT, Shinnar S. The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review. Neurology. 1991;41(7):965-72.

Beydoun A, Passaro EA. Appropriate use of medications for seizures. Guiding principles on the path of efficacy. Postgrad Med. 2002;111(1):69-70, 73-8, 81-2.

Britton JW. Antiepileptic drug withdrawal: literature review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(12):1378-88.

Callaghan N, Garrett A, Goggin T. Withdrawal of anticonvulsant drugs in patients free of seizures for two years. A prospective study. N Engl J Med. 1988;318(15):942-6.

Chadwick DW. Driving restrictions and people with epilepsy. Neurology. 2001;57(10):1749-50.

Drazkowski JF. Management of the social consequences of seizures. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78(5):641-9.

Eadie M. The single seizure. To treat or not to treat. Drugs. 1997: 54(5):651-6.

Gastaut H, Zifkin BG. The risk of automobile accidents with seizures occurring while driving: relation to seizure type. Neurology. 1987;37(10):1613-6.

Gibberd FB, Bateson MC. Sleep epilepsy: its pattern and prognosis. Br Med J. 1974;2(5916):403-5.

Hansotia P. Automobile driving and epilepsy: a medical perspective. Wis Med J. 1991;90(3):112-5.

Hauser WA, Chokroverty S, Dawson D, et al. Task force IV report: Episodic neurologic conditions II. In: Washington Consulting Group, ed. Conference on Neurological Disorders and Commercial Drivers. Washington DC: Office of Motor Carriers; 1988: 49-55.

Krauss GL, Krumholz A, Carter RC, Li G, Kaplan P. Risk factors for seizure-related motor vehicle crashes in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 1999;52(7):1324-9.

Krumholz A, Fisher RS, Lesser RP, Hauser WA. Driving and epilepsy. A review and reappraisal. JAMA. 1991;265(5):622-6.

Lings S. Increased driving accident frequency in Danish patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2001;57(3):435-9.

Musicco M, Beghi E, Solari A, Viani F. Treatment of first tonic-clonic seizure does not improve the prognosis of epilepsy. First Seizure Trial Group (FIRST Group). Neurology. 1997;49(4):991-8.

Prego-lopez M, Devinsky O. Evaluation of a first seizure. Is it epilepsy? Postgrad Med. 2002;111(1):34-6, 43-8.

Prognostic index for recurrence of seizures after remission of epilepsy. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group. BMJ. 1993;306(6889):1374-8.

Reynolds EH, Trimble MR. Adverse neuropsychiatric effects of anticonvulsant drugs. Drugs. 1985;29(6):570-81.

Sander JW. Some aspects of prognosis in the epilepsies: a review. Epilepsia. 1993;34(6):1007-16.

Sanders JW, Shorvon SD. Remission periods in epilepsy and their relation to long-term prognosis. In: Wolf P, Dam M, Janz D, Freifuss FF, ed. Advances in Epileptology: XV Epilepsy International Symposium. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1987: 353-6.

Schiller Y, Cascino GD, So EL, Marsh WR. Discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs after successful epilepsy surgery. Neurology. 2000;54(2):346-9.

Schmidt D, Gram L. A practical guide to when (and how) to withdraw antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients. Drugs. 1996;52(6):870-4.

Shorvon SD. Epidemiology, classification, natural history, and genetics of epilepsy. Lancet. 1990:336(8787):93-6.

Sirven JI. Demystifying seizures and epilepsy: introduction to the symposium on seizures. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(9):977-9.

Sirven JI. Antiepileptic drug therapy for adults: when to initiate and how to choose. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(12):1367-75.

Spencer SS. Long-term outcome after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 1996;37(9):807-13.

Thurman DJ, Beghi E, Begley CE, et al. Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52 Suppl 7:2-26.

Verrotti A, Trotta D, Salladini C, Morgese G, Chiarelli F. Risk factors for recurrence of epilepsy and withdrawal of antiepileptic therapy: a practical approach. Ann Med. 2003;35(3):207-15.

Weiss GH, Feeney DM, Caveness WF, et al. Prognostic factors for the occurrence of posttraumatic epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 1983;40(1):7-10.