Shoulder Disorders

sec_arr References


  1. Moser T, Lecours J, Michaud J, Bureau NJ, Guillin R, Cardinal É. The deltoid, a forgotten muscle of the shoulder. Skeletal Radiol. 2013;42(10):1361-75.
  2. ACOEM Practice Guidelines, Upper Extremity Disorders. MD Guidelines. Reed Group: Denver, Colo; 2016.
  3. Leroux T, Wasserstein D, Veillette C, et al. Epidemiology of primary anterior shoulder dislocation requiring closed reduction in Ontario Canada. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(2):442-50.
  4. Sachs RA, Lin D, Stone ML, Paxton E, Kuney M. Can the need for future surgery for acute traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation be predicted? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(8):1665-74.
  5. Porcellini G, Campi F, Pegreffi F, Castagna A, Paladini P. Predisposing factors for recurrent shoulder dislocation after arthroscopic treatment. J Bone Joint Surg. 2009;91(11):2537-42.
  6. Jakobsen BW, Johannsen HV, Suder P, Søjberg JO. Primary repair versus conservative treatment of first time traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder: a randomized study with 10-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2007;23(2):118-23.
  7. Hovelius L, Rahme H. Primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder: long-term prognosis at the age of 40 or younger. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24(2):330-42.
  8. Kirkley A, Werstine R, Ratjek A, Griffin S. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of immediate arthroscopic stabilization versus immobilization and rehabilitation and first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: long-term evaluation. Arthroscopy. 2005;21(1):55-63.
  9. Dumont GD, Russell RD, Robertson WJ. Anterior shoulder instability: a review of pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011;4(4):200-7.
  10. Robinson CM, Howes J, Murdoch H, Will E, Graham C. Functional outcome and risk of recurrent instability. Robinson. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(11):2326-36.
  11. Polyzois I, Dattani R, Gupta R, Levy O, Narvani Traumatic first-time shoulder dislocation: surgery versus nonoperative treatment. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2016;4(2):104-8. Available at: Accessed August 17, 2019.
  12. Tannenbaum EP, Sekiya JK. Posterior shoulder instability In the contact athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2013;32(4):781-96.
  13. Antosh IJ, Tokish JM, Owens BD. Posterior shoulder instability: current surgical management. Sports Health. 2016;8(6):520-6. Available at: Accessed August 17, 2019.
  14. Robinson CM, Seah M, Akhtar MA. The epidemiology, risk of recurrence, and functional outcome after an acute traumatic posterior dislocation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(17):1605-13.
  15. Imerci A, Gölcük Y, Ugur SG, Ursavas HT, Savran A, Sürer L. Inferior glenohumeral dislocation (luxation erecta humeri): report of six cases and review of literature. Turkish J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2013;19(1):41-44. Available at: Accessed August 17, 2019.
  16. Handoll HH, Brorson S. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochran Data Base Syst Rev. 2015;(11):CD000434.
  17. Steinhaus ME, Dare DM, Gulotta LV. Displaced proximal humerus fractures: is a sling as good as a plate? HSS J. 2016;12(3):287-90. Available at: Accessed August 17, 2019.
  18. Lee CS, Davis SM, Ho HA, Fronek J. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in elite throwing athletes: a unique application of flexible intramedullary Nailing. Case Rep Orthop. 2013;2013: Available at: Accessed August 17, 2019.
  19. Schofer MD, Sehrt AC, Timmesfeld N, Störmer S, Kortmann HR. Fractures of the scapula: long-term results after conservative treatment. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129(11):1511-9.
  20. Lantry JM, Roberts CS, Giannoudis PV. Operative treatment of scapular fractures: a systematic review. Injury. 2008;39(3):271-83.
  21. Jones CB, Sietsema DL. Analysis of operative versus nonoperative treatment of displaced scapular fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(12):3379-89.
  22. Alshameeri ZA, Katam K, Alsamaq M, Sonsale P. The outcome of surgical fixation of mid shaft clavicle fractures; looking at patient satisfaction and comparing surgical approaches. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2012;6(3):76-81. Available at Accessed August 19, 2019.
  23. Manske RC, Prohaska D. Diagnosis and management of adhesive capsulitis. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008;1(3-4):180-9. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  24. Monica J, Vredenburgh Z, Korsh J, Gatt C. Acute shoulder injuries in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2016;94(2):119-27.
  25. Tibone JE, Bradley JP. Evaluation of treatment outcomes for the athlete’s shoulder. In: The Shoulder: A Balance of Mobility and Stability. Eds: Matsen FA, Fu FH, Hawkins RJ. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: Rosemont IL; 1991.
  26. Mazoué CG, Andrews JR. Repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(2):182-9.
  27. Sidles JA, Pearl MP. Description and measurement of shoulder motion. In: The Shoulder: A Balance of Mobility and Stability, eds: Matsen FA, Fu FH, Hawkins RJ. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: Rosemont IL; 1991.
  28. Mallon WJ, Herring CL, Sallay PI, Moorman CT, Crim JR. Use of vertebral levels to measure presumed internal rotation at the shoulder: a radiographic analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1996;5(4):299-306.
  29. Speer KP, Garrett WE. Muscle control of motion and stability about the pectoral girdle. In The Shoulder: A Balance of Mobility and Stability. Workshop, Vail, Colorado, September 1992, AAOS Symposium Series. Matsen FA, Fu FH, Hawkins RJ eds. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: Rosemont IL; 1993.
  30. Chakraverty R, Pynsent P, Isaacs K. Which spinal levels are identified by palpation of the iliac crests and the posterior superior iliac spines? J Anat. 2007;210(2):232-6.
  31. Kumar K, Makandura M, Leong NJ, et al. Is the apprehension test sufficient for the diagnosis of anterior shoulder Instability in young patients without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Ann Acad Med Singapore 2015; 44:178-84.
  32. Safran O, Milgrom C, Radeva-Petrova DR, Jaber S, Finestone A. Accuracy of the anterior apprehension test as a predictor of risk for redislocation after a first traumatic shoulder dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(5):972-5.
  33. Owens BD, Duffy ML, Deberardino TM, Cameron KL. Physical examination findings in young athletes correlate with history of shoulder instability. Orthopedics. 2011;34(6):460.
  34. Callanan M, Tzannes A, Hayes K, Paxinos A, Walton J, Murrell GA. Shoulder instability. Diagnosis and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2001;30(7):655-61.
  35. Van Rijn RM, Huisstede BM, Koes BW, Burdoft A. Associations between work-related factors and specific disorders of the shoulder: a systematic review of the literature. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010;36(3):189-201.
  36. Lin YP, Huang TF, Hung SC, Ma HL, Liu CL. Rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 50 years of age. Acta Orthop Belg. 2012;78(5):592-6.
  37. Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Keshavarz R, Minoonejhad H, Mohsenifar H, Shakeri H. Shoulder pain in Iranian elite athletes: the prevalence and risk factors. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012;35(7):541-8.
  38. Nove-Josserand L, Liotard JP, Godeneche A, et al. Occupational outcome after surgery in patients with a rotator cuff tear due to a work-related injury or occupational disease. A series of 262 cases. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2011;97(4):361-6.
  39. Kemp KA, Sheps DM, Luciak-Corea C, Styles-Tripp F, Buckingham J, Beaupre LA. Systemic review of rotator cuff tears and workers’ compensation patients. Occup Med (Lond). 2011;61(8):556-62.
  40. Matthewson G, Beach CJ, Nelson AA, et al. Partial thickness rotator cuff tears: current concepts. Adv Orthop. 2015;2015:458786. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  41. Sefidbakht S, Momenzadeh OR, Dehghani S, Gerami H. MRI-arthroscopic correlation in rotator cuff tendon pathology; a comparison between various centers. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2016:4(2);141-44. Available at: Accessed November 20, 2019.
  42. Lee CS, Davis SM, McGroder C, et al. Analysis of low-field MRI scanners for evaluation of shoulder pathology based on arthroscopy. J Orthopedic Sports Med. 2014;2;2(7):2325967114540407.
  43. de Jesus J. Accuracy of MRI, MR arthrography, and ultrasound in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears: a meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(6):1701-7.
  44. Gupta H, Robinson P. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2015;19(3):203-11.
  45. Hermans J, Luime JJ, Meuffels DE, Reijman M, Simel DL, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Does this patient with shoulder pain have rotator cuff disease? The Rational Clinical Examination system review. JAMA. 2013;310(8):837-47.
  46. Hanchard NC, Lenza M, Handoll HH, Takwoingi Y. Physical tests for shoulder impingements and local lesions of bursa, tendon or labrum that may accompany impingement. Cochran Database Syst Rev. 2008;4. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  47. Hegedus EJ. Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests. British J Sports Med. 2012;46(14):964-78.
  48. Kovacev N, Janjic N, Obradovic M. Surgical treatment of shoulder rotator cuff injuries. Med Pregl. 2014;67(7-8):239-45.
  49. Khan M, Simunovic N, Provencher M. Cochrane in CORR®: surgery for rotator cuff disease (review). Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472(11):3263-9.
  50. Kim YS, Chung SW, Kim JY, Ok JH, Park I, Oh JH. Is early passive motion exercise necessary after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):815-21.
  51. Shen C, Tang ZH, Hu JZ, Zou GY, Xiao RC, Yan DX. Does immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair increase tendon healing: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014;134(9):1279-85.
  52. Dodson CC, Kitay A, Verma NN, et al. The long-term outcome of recurrent defects after rotator cuff repair. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(1):35-9.
  53. Kim H, Lee Y, Shin I, Kim K, Moon J. Effects of 8 weeks’ specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26(10):1553-6.
  54. Montellese P, Dancy T. The acromioclavicular joint. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. 2004;31:857-66.
  55. Saccomanno MF, De Ieso C, Milano G. Acromioclavicular joint instability: anatomy, biomechanics, and evaluation. Joints. 2014;2(2):87-92. Available at Accessed August 19, 2019.
  56. Chronopoulos E, Kim TK, Park HB, Ashenbrenner D, McFarland EG. Diagnostic value of physical tests for isolated chronic acromioclavicular lesions. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(3):655-61.
  57. Nissen CW, Chatterjee A. Type III acromioclavicular separation: results of a recent survey on its management. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007;36(2):89-93.
  58. Smith TO, Chester R, Pearse EO, Hing CB. Operative versus non-operative management following Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular resection: a meta-analysis of current evidence base. J Orthop Traumatol. 2011;12 (1):19-27. Available at Accessed August 19, 2019.
  59. Watson ST, Wyland DJ. Return to play after nonoperative management for a severe type III acromioclavicular separation in the throwing shoulder of a collegiate pitcher. Phys Sportsmed. 2015;43(1):99-103.
  60. Nam EK, Snyder SJ. The diagnosis and treatment of superior labrum, anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(5):798-810.
  61. Crichton J, Jones DR, Funk L. Mechanism of traumatic shoulder injury in elite rugby players. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(7):
    538-42. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  62. Funk L, Snow M. SLAP tears of the glenoid labrum and contact athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17(1):1-4.
  63. Popp D, Schöffl V. Superior labral anterior posterior lesions of the shoulder: current diagnostic and therapeutic standards. World J Orthop. 2015;6(9):660-71. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  64. Herold T, Hente R, Zorger N, et al. Indirect MR-arthrography of the shoulder-value in the detection of SLAP-lesions. Rofo. 2003;175:1508-14. [Article in German]
  65. Schwartzberg R, Reuss BL, Burkhart BG, Butterfield M, Wu JY, McLean KW. High prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in middle-aged patients with asymptomatic shoulders. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4(1): Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  66. O’Kane JW, Toresdahl BG. The evidence-based shoulder evaluation. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2014;13(5):307-13.
  67. Munro W, Healy R. The validity and accuracy of clinical tests used to detect labral pathology of the shoulder: a systemic review. Man Ther. 2009;14(2):119-30.
  68. McFarland EG, Kim TK, Savino RM. Clinical assessment of three common tests for superior labral anterior posterior lesions. Am J Sports Med. 2002;306):810-5.
  69. Denard PJ, Lädermann A, Burkhart SS. Long-term outcome after arthroscopic repair type II SLAP lesions: results according to age and worker’s compensation status. Arthroscopy. 2012;28(4):451-7. Available at: Accessed August 14, 2019.
  70. Pennington WT, Sytsma MA, Gibbons DJ, et al. Arthroscopic posterior labral repair in athletes: outcome analysis at 2-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2010;26(9):1162-71.
  71. Enad JG. Gaines RJ, White SM, Kurtz CA. Arthroscopic superior labrum anterior-posterior repair in military patients. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16(3):300-5.
  72. Beyzadeoglu T, Circi E. Superior labrum anterior posterior lesions and associated injuries: return to play in elite athletes. Ortho J Sports Med. 2015;3(4):1-5. Available at: August 19, 2019.
  73. Provencher MT, McCormick F, Dewing C, McIntire S, Solomon D. A prospective analysis of 179 type 2 superior labrum anterior and posterior repairs: outcomes and factors associated with success and failure. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(4):880-6.
  74. Sayde WM, Cohen SB, Ciccotti MG, Dodson CC. Return to play after Type II superior labral anterior-posterior lesion repairs in athletes: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470(6):1595-600.
  75. Livingston DH, Hauser CJ. Trauma to the chest wall and lung. In: Trauma, 5th ed; Moore EE, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, eds. McGraw-Hill Professional; 2003:516.
  76. Zenteno B. Proximal and distal rupture of the biceps. Int J Sports Med. 2015;5(4):151-5.
  77. Oehler N, Schmidt T, Niemeier A. Total joint replacement and return to sports [in German]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2016;30(4):195-203.
  78. Garcia GH, Taylor SA, DePalma BJ, et al. Patient activity levels after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: what are patients doing? Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(11):2816–21.
  79. Johnson CC, Johnson DJ, Liu JN, et al. Return to sports after arthroplasty. World J Orthop. 2016;7(9):519-26.
  80. Golant A, Christoforou D, Zuckerman, JD, Kwon YW. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty: a survey of surgeons’ preferences. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21(4):554-60.
  81. Dunn JC, Kusnezov NA, Koehler LR, et al. Radial head arthroplasty in active duty military service members with minimum 2 year follow up. J Hand Surg Am. 2017;42(8):e1-660.
  82. Kusnezov N, Dunn JC, Parada SA, Kilcoyne K, Waterman BR. Clinical outcomes of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty in young active population. Am J Orthop. 2016;45(5):E273-82. Accessed August 19, 2019.
  83. Atef A, El-Tantawy A, Gad H, Hefeda M. Prevalence of associated injuries after anterior shoulder dislocation a prospective study. Int Orthop. 2016;40(3):519-24.
  84. Godin J, Sekiya JK. Systemic review of rehabilitation versus operative stabilization for the treatment of first-time anterior shoulder dislocations. Sports Health. 2010;2(2)156-65.
  85. Gaunt BW, Shaffer MA, Sauers EL, Michener LA, McCluskey GM, Thigpen C; American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists. The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists’ consensus rehabilitation guidelines for arthroscopic anterior capsule labral repair of the shoulder. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(30):155-68.
  86. Olds M, Ellis R, Donaldson K, Parmar P, Kersten P. Risk factors which predispose first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations to recurrent instability in adults: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(14):913-22. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  87. Sedeek SM, Bin Abd Razak HR, Ee GW, Tan AH. First-time anterior shoulder dislocations: should they be arthroscopically stabilised? Singapore Med J. 2014;55(10):511-16. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  88. Watson S, Allen B, Grant JA. A clinical review of return to play considerations after anterior shoulder dislocation. Sports Health. 2016;8(4):336-41. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  89. Dickens JF, Owens BD, Cameron KL, et al. Return to play and recurrent instability after in-season anterior shoulder instability: a prospective multicenter study. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(12):2842-50.
  90. Hovelius L, Olofsson A, Sandström B, et al. Nonoperative treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in patients forty years of age and younger: a prospective twenty-five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(5):945-52.
  91. Gaudelli C, Hérbert-Davies J, Balg F, et al. The impact of superior labral anterior to posterior lesions on functional status in shoulder instability: a multicenter cohort study. Orthop J Sports Med. 2014;2(10):232596711455. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.
  92. Baker CL, Uribe J, Whitman C. Arthroscopic evaluation of acute initial anterior dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(1):25-8.
  93. Ewald A. Adhesive capsulitis: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(4):417-22. Available at: Accessed August 19, 2019.