German Measles (Rubella)
General Description: Rubella is a vaccine-preventable viral illness characterized by fever, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and a fine rash. Although complications occur occasionally, the greatest concern for rubella is its ability to cause birth defects (congenital rubella syndrome) involving the nervous system, heart, liver, and pancreas (type 1 diabetes). Due to widespread immunization practices, rubella is no longer considered endemic in the U.S.
Mode of Transmission: Contact with the secretions from the nose and throat of infected persons.
Efficiency of Transmission/Attack Rate: Natural infection or immunization confers prolonged immunity, but may not confer life-long immunity.
Period of Communicability: 1 week before onset of rash and up to 7 days after onset of rash.
Effect on LEO Fitness for Duty: Rubella symptoms are generally indistinguishable from other self-limited viral illnesses with rash and upper respiratory tract symptoms.
LEO-specific Clinical Studies and Reports: None known.